CVD Graphene Production Technology

General Graphene has always believed that making graphene requires combining the subtleties associated with science and engineering. Our proprietary atmospheric roll-to-roll CVD production technology combines state-of-the-art innovations in graphene science and engineering to deliver affordable graphene at scale for researchers and industries across the world.

Traditional CVD Equipment
GG 3.0 Roll-to-Roll CVD System

The Process

1. Metal Substrate Pre-treatment

The copper foil catalyst undergoes an electropolishing step followed by rinsing with water and solvents. The catalyst is then heated to anneal the surface, tune the catalyst grain structure, and eliminate any remaining surface contaminants.

Copper foil machine for pre-treatment, crucial for top-quality CVD graphene production, uses.

1. Metal Substrate Pre-treatment

The copper foil catalyst undergoes an electropolishing step followed by rinsing with water and solvents. The catalyst is then heated to anneal the surface, tune the catalyst grain structure, and eliminate any remaining surface contaminants.

Copper foil machine for pre-treatment, crucial for top-quality CVD graphene production, uses.
Graphene synthesis machine: Metal catalyst, hydrocarbon gas in high-temp furnace, atmospheric conditions.

2. Graphene Growth

Graphene growth begins when the metal catalyst substrate is conveyed through the furnace and exposed to a hydrocarbon gas mixture at high temperature under atmospheric conditions. The hydrocarbon gas adsorbs onto the catalyst surface, where dehydrogenation occurs, leaving elemental carbon atoms adsorbed on the surface. These carbon atoms diffuse and attach to nucleated hexagonal graphene crystals, eventually merging to form a continuous single-layer or multi-layer graphene sheet. Our process allows us to control the synthesis of graphene crystal size, number of layers, and defect density by carefully adjusting factors such as catalyst composition, pretreatment steps, hydrocarbon gas mixture, growth temperature, and substrate retention time under heat.

Graphene synthesis machine: Metal catalyst, hydrocarbon gas in high-temp furnace, atmospheric conditions.

2. Graphene Growth

Graphene growth begins when the metal catalyst substrate is conveyed through the furnace and exposed to a hydrocarbon gas mixture at high temperature under atmospheric conditions. The hydrocarbon gas adsorbs onto the catalyst surface, where dehydrogenation occurs, leaving elemental carbon atoms adsorbed on the surface. These carbon atoms diffuse and attach to nucleated hexagonal graphene crystals, eventually merging to form a continuous single-layer or multi-layer graphene sheet. Our process allows us to control the synthesis of graphene crystal size, number of layers, and defect density by carefully adjusting factors such as catalyst composition, pretreatment steps, hydrocarbon gas mixture, growth temperature, and substrate retention time under heat.

3. Inline Polymer Coating

Our proprietary GG 3.0 system was integrated with an inline polymer coating system in late 2022, enabling CVD graphene-on-catalyst substrates to be coated with a choice of thin polymer films – serving as a protective coating for the graphene on copper and/or the final substrate on which the graphene is shipped to our partners.

Machine coats paper for graphene-on-copper protection, boosting durability, application range.

3. Inline Polymer Coating

Our proprietary GG 3.0 system was integrated with an inline polymer coating system in late 2022, enabling CVD graphene-on-catalyst substrates to be coated with a choice of thin polymer films – serving as a protective coating for the graphene on copper and/or the final substrate on which the graphene is shipped to our partners.

Machine coats paper for graphene-on-copper protection, boosting durability, application range.
Machine cures, laminates polymer-coated substrates, enhancing graphene durability, performance.

4. Curing and Lamination

Once a graphene-on-catalyst substrate is coated with your choice of polymer, it is cured simultaneously in the GG 3.0 pilot line. A structural backer is also applied as the copper-graphene-polymer roll reaches the outfeed of the production line.

Machine cures, laminates polymer-coated substrates, enhancing graphene durability, performance.

4. Curing and Lamination

Once a graphene-on-catalyst substrate is coated with your choice of polymer, it is cured simultaneously in the GG 3.0 pilot line. A structural backer is also applied as the copper-graphene-polymer roll reaches the outfeed of the production line.

GG 3.0 Roll-to-Roll Graphene Production

Commissioned in late 2021, GG 3.0 is the third generation of our CVD graphene production equipment and is the world’s first truly scalable CVD graphene production system capable of synthesizing large-area roll-to-roll graphene films under atmospheric conditions. Our system has a modular design limited to a maximum width of 300 mm and scalable to any length based on demand. This system enables us to leverage our unique experience with developing graphene growth recipes tailored to optimize material properties for a range of applications. Currently, GG 3.0 can produce between 65,000 and 100,000 m2 annually at a direct production cost between 2-3 orders of magnitude lower than the market.

GG 3.0 rolls out copper for scalable Roll-to-Roll CVD graphene, boosting system efficiency.

Contact us to learn how our CVD graphene production technology can help you realize your graphene application at scale.